Maximum Input Power
Maximum Input Voltage
Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) voltage range
Maximum Input Current
Number of Max Power Point Trackers / String per maximum power point tracker
Maximum Output Current
Nominal Mains frequency
50 Hz / 60 Hz
Nominal Mains Voltage
230V, L + N + PE
1 (0.99 lagging ~ 0.99 leading)
Operating Voltage Range
180V ~ 270V
50Hz / 60Hz
Automatic switching time
110%, 60s / 120%, 30s / 150%, 10s
Battery Voltage Range
125V ~ 600V
Max. Parallel batteries
The voltage of a fully charged battery
Lithium / iron phosphate
>10 years (25℃)
RS485 standard / CAN / DRM : WiFi/Lan
IEC 62109-1&-2, IEC 62477, CE-EMC
580 x 1800 x 350 mm
Operating Temperature Range
The highest height
Description of solar panels:
Demand for renewable energy has grown dramatically over the past 10 years. Therefore, V-TAC has taken a step towards the distribution of photovoltaic panels. V-TAC will mainly focus on systems intended for households.
What is a photovoltaic panel and how does it work?
Photoelectric panels are made up of individual cells connected in groups in series or parallel depending on the need (see Figure 1). The principle of operation of PV panels, as the name implies, is the photovoltaic effect (see Figure 2). This effect occurs when photons (solar energy) collide with the silicon semiconductor and push the atoms out of their normal trajectory. After this displacement, electrons and holes (positively and negatively charged particles) are released, creating a potential difference and current flow.
A photovoltaic panel consists of thin cells made of a fragile material. They are placed on a base made of a special material, the front side is covered with glass and the entire structure is covered with an aluminum frame (see Figure 3). Individual module cells are connected in series. Each cell has sockets connected to it with another cell, these sockets are pulled out at the back of the panel in what is called a junction box. The panel positive and negative solar cables are also attached to this box.
Types of photovoltaic panels.
The main types of photovoltaic panels are 3. Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, Thin film.
Monocrystalline cells occupy the largest market share. They are the most efficient in the amount of 16-22%, but at the expense of this, their production is the most labor-intensive, which in turn increases the cost. Monocrystalline cells consist of a single crystal of silicon. To obtain this crystal, the Czochralski process is used, in which silicon is melted in a bath located in a vacuum environment (see Figure 4). The "seed" is dipped into a bath of molten silicon and withdrawn, and during withdrawal the silicon is cooled to produce monocrystalline silicon.
The crystal is then formed and cut into wafers (individual cells), contacts are attached and the cell is ready for assembly on the board.
Polycrystalline cells hold the second largest market share. Their efficiency is between 13 and 16% because they do not consist of a single crystal. The manufacturing process is much cheaper than that of monocrystalline cells, resulting in a lower final cost. The silicon is melted and poured into molds, then cut into wafers, the contact wafers are reapplied, and it is ready to be mounted on the board.
Thin film solar cell manufacturing is based on placing one or more layers of photovoltaic material on the surface. By comparison, in classical silicon cells the photocell is 0.2 mm or 200 micrometers thick, while in thin-film cells it is only a few micrometers. Depending on the technology, thin-film module prototypes have achieved efficiencies of 7-13%. The main ones run around 9%. Efficiency is expected to increase to around 10-16% in the future.
An inverter is a device that converts DC voltages or currents into AC voltages or currents. Another name is DC/AC converter. Depending on the principle of operation of the inverter, they are divided into two main groups: inverters with a built-in transformer and inverters without a transformer. Transformer inverters have 2-3% losses due to the presence of the transformer and are therefore mostly used in PV farms above 1MWp. In other cases, transformerless inverters are used, the efficiency of which is about 98%. In addition to the principle of operation, inverters are also divided into off-grid and grid-connected.
Some inverters have a built-in 50Hz generator, so they are used in places where there is no network or it is not profitable to create one (see Figure 5)
Individual solar cells must be connected to batteries.
Grid connected inverters do not have a 50Hz generator. They take into account the shape and frequency of the external power supply, see Figure 6)
The main areas of application of inverters are as follows:
- AC power supply
- Redundancy of AC consumers
- By supplying the grid with electricity produced from photovoltaic plants or other renewable sources
Hybrid solar system
Batteries. Where and why they are used.
Photovoltaic power is intermittent and cannot provide the required power 24 hours a day, 365 days a year without interruption. Therefore, it is necessary to store the energy generated by renewable energy sources in order to transfer it to the consumer when needed.
The main types of rechargeable electrochemical batteries available today are:
- Lead-acid (Pb-acid).
- Nickel cadmium (NiCd).
- Lithium ions (Li-ion).
- Lithium polymer (Li-poly).
Almost all PV, wind and hybrid backup energy systems use lead-acid batteries to store electricity (see Figure 7). This is mainly due to their low cost despite their lower capacity to weight ratio
Types of lead-acid batteries. They are classified into two types, depending on the intended use and design (manufacturing method). By purpose, they are used in cars and those designed for deep discharge (traction). Those intended for deep discharge are used for: photovoltaic or hybrid systems; emergency power systems; caravans and boats. Deep discharge batteries are designed to deliver 80% of their maximum energy and have thick electrode plates, unlike starter batteries which have porous electrodes. The main types of lead-acid batteries by design are liquid electrolyte, gel electrolyte or AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat). AGMs are known as dry cell batteries because the fiberglass is only 95% impregnated with acid, creating no risk of electrolyte spillage even if the battery is mechanically damaged.
Shipping and returns
Delivery of goods:
You will be able to choose the most convenient and nearest delivery place during the ordering process. It will be possible to easily view all the nearest delivery points on the map or choose delivery to the delivery address specified by you.
Delivery of goods takes place automatically as soon as we have received payment for the purchase.
97% of all received orders we can fulfill immediately and ensure the fastest possible delivery by handing over the prepared package to the courier on the day of receipt of payment.
1. You can pick up your order for free in our store map
2. Parcel terminals. Delivery at all OMNIVA parcel terminals EUR 2.99
3. COURIER. Riga and Riga district, rest of Latvia EUR 6.00
We want to achieve our client satisfaction.
There is no need to write an application for the return of goods. If you want to return the product, call us or write to Whatsap on +371 25633444 or write a free-form e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org with the order number. We'll be grateful if you mention the reason for the return. After receiving the confirmation, you or another person with whom you will agree must deliver the product to the store ZEMLETES.LV Cesvaines Street 15a, Riga (located on the premises of LEDakcijas.lv store) or send it via Omniva parcel to TC Akropole Rīga parcel, indicating the recipient's number +371 25633444.
We will return the money within 1 day to a week after receiving the returned product (except for the delivery fee). The cost of returning the product by post, courier, or transport must be covered by the customer unless the product is defective or does not meet the description.